Modern Men: A Norwegian 30-Year Longitudinal Study of Intergenerational Transmission and Social Change

This work addresses men, intergenerational transmission and social change, within the context of the change in the theorising and politicising of gender relations in the Nordic countries from the 1950s onwards.

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Counting on Marilyn Waring: new advances in feminist economics

This edited volume maps new advances in theories and practices in feminist economics and the valuation of women, care and nature since Marilyn Waring’s groundbreaking critique of the system of national accounts, If Women Counted (1988). It features theoretical, practical and policy oriented contributions, empirical studies, and new conceptualizations, theorizations and problematizations of defining and accounting for the value of nature and unpaid household work, eco-feminism, national and international policy processes, gender budgeting, unpaid care and HIV/AIDS policy, activism and artwork, and mirrors the wide-ranging impact and resonance of Waring’s work as well as the current frontiers of feminist economics/eco-feminism.

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Study of work–life balance among Polish and Polish–Norwegian couples

Policy and Social Research and two partners, Norwegian Social Research (NOVA) and the Department of Occupational Psychology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Poland, have received a grant from the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme for a study of work–life balance among Polish and Polish–Norwegian couples. The study will be carried out 2013–2016. Read more here.

Side event on the financial crisis, the economic crisis and women CSW 58

I am currently organising, together with Joanna Manganara, the IAW president, a side event on the financial crisis, the economic crisis and women that the International Alliance of Women will host in New York on occasion of the 58th session of the UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) 10–21 April 2014. I will speak on the “Oil Fund,” creditors’ responsibility for the financial crisis and states’ debt management from a human rights perspective. Read more here.

Changing men, changing times: Fathers and sons from an experimental gender equality study


The aim of this article is to develop a conceptual framework for addressing intergenerational transmission, historical change and agency. The framework is employed to analyse the findings from a longitudinal follow-up study over two generations of men, where couples from Norway participated in an experimental research study, the Work-Sharing Couples Project, which aimed to promote egalitarian work–family adaptations in the early 1970s. The original study was based on both spouses working part-time and shift parenting. The follow-up study concluded that the untraditional work–family arrangement had not been passed on to the sons. The article develops a multidimensional analysis of the work–family adaptations of men in two generations: the untraditional adaptation of fathers in the 1970s; and the neo-traditional adaptations of sons in the 2000s.

In developing a four-dimensional approach to intergenerational transmission and social change, the article contributes to the study of intergenerational transmission through the comparison of situated agency in different generations and time/spaces. Taking into account different aspects of time and space, personal biography, discursive and material structures of opportunity, and intergenerational dynamics at the family level as well as at social level, the article contributes to theorising longitudinal qualitative research by linking the micro-level to the macro-level.

Cite this work

Bjørnholt, Margunn (2014). Changing men, changing times; fathers and sons from an experimental gender equality study (PDF). The Sociological Review. Published online ahead of print 23 April 2014. doi: 10.1111/1467-954X.12156.

‘Am I rambling?’ On the advantages of interviewing couples together

This article addresses a methodological controversy regarding the question of whether couples should ideally be interviewed together or apart. It draws on three different studies in which joint couple interviews were used either as the sole source of data or in combination with individual interviews. The authors focus on the specifics and strengths of joint couple interviews, and they argue that interviewing couples together has several advantages, such as solving the ethical problems of anonymity and consent among interviewees, and results in the production of rich data, including observational data. Furthermore, the authors point to the practical advantages of conducting joint interviews with couples. In taking a relational view of the self and of what is produced in research interviews, the authors propose to apply the concept of family display, originally proposed by Janet Finch. It is argued that the researcher may be seen as one of many possible audiences for this type of family practice.

Bjørnholt, Margunn; Farstad, Gunhild Regland (2012). ’Am I rambling?’ On the advantages of interviewing couples together. Qualitative Research. Published online ahead of print 28 September 2012. doi:10.1177/1468794112459671.

Read the article here.

Workshop on vulnerability as a basis for justice and equality in the Nordic countries

Workshop with Professor Martha Albertson Fineman in Oslo 14–15 August 2012. Organised by the Nordic Women’s University (Kvinneuniversitetet i Norden) in cooperation with the research group Law and Vulnerabilities (Rätt och utsatthet), Faculty of Law, Lund University, and the research group Rights, Individuals, Culture and Society, Faculty of Law, University of Oslo.

Martha Albertson Fineman has for several decades been a leading feminist legal theorist and is among the founders of the field. Her current research programme, the Vulnerability and the Human Condition Initiative, is directed at finding new ways to reformulate existing legal and social bases for global justice. By taking the shared, human condition of vulnerability as a point of departure, her vulnerability approach reorganizes the relations between individuals and society. The theoretical and political implications of Fineman’s vulnerability analysis are possibly far-reaching, and we invite other researchers and social scientists to join us in exploring the relevance and possible uses of the vulnerability approach in a Nordic context.

The workshop is based on written papers, and is also open to non-presenters. If you want to participate, contact


Read call for papers here

Money Against the Stream: Alternative Financial Institutions


This dissertation discusses the role of money and finance in transforming society towards social, ecological and economic sustainability.

During the 1980s the money markets and foreign exchange markets have been liberalized, deregulated and internationalized, and the social control of cash flows has become seriously weakened. In line with this development, banks are expected to act as profit-maximizing businesses, while they were previously expected to function as social institutions.

Contrary to this development, in many countries a variety of small organizations have emerged, that run banks and financing activities on the basis of social, environmental and ethical values. Most aim to promote investments that contribute to an ecological, solidaric and ethical development, and a large part seek to promote employee-owned companies/cooperatives. Some see their business as part of changing the economic system. Although these organizations are few in each country, and small compared to traditional banks, they have had a strong growth, both in number and size during the last decade. They represent a development towards directing cash flows to projects that point in the direction of an alternative development, putting money to social and ethical use as part of transforming society towards sustainability and justice.

However, the future importance of this trend is dependent on the further development of these organizations. Financing activities are conducted in a market where actors are obliged to fulfill certain requirements for profitable and rational operations, and to avoid losses. Furthermore, financial institutions must comply with regulatory requirements. Here, the central question is how the alternative financial institutions maintain their ideal goals, ideology and practices while surviving as market players and adapting to the regulatory framework.

The dissertation discusses these challenges using three case studies employing theories of the role of money in society, as well as theory of social movements and new institutional theories. The three organisations are

  • Cultura—an ethical bank which is part of the anthroposophical movement in Norway and internationally
  • Nettverkskreditt [Network Credit]—a Norwegian microcredit initiative for women, inspired by Grameen Bank in Bangladesh
  • JAK (Jord, Arbete, Kapital [Earth, Work, Capital])—a Swedish savings and loan system recently turned bank, which provides interest-free loans based on a theoretical critique of the role of interest in the economy.

Based on the analysis of the three cases, the study concludes that alternative financial institutions have come to stay, as part of new social movements’ endeavours for another society. The study concludes that alternative financial institutions represent real alternatives to market-based, profit-maximizing financial organizations:

Firstly, they contribute to alternative theoretical and ideological understandings of the relationship between money, economy and society, drawing on lines of thought which can be traced back to Aristotle, to the scolastics of the Middle Ages and to the major religions, within which money, profit and economic activity have been subject to social and ethical considerations.

Secondly, the alternative financial institutions create new models for an ethical and sustainable development by creating funding systems based on the consideration of the community, the environment, society or marginalized groups in the loan market, in this case women.

Thirdly, alternative financial institutions also create opportunities for ordinary people to act in line with their values, with little personal cost, by entrusting their savings and payables to an alternative bank instead of a traditional bank, thus helping to promote projects which are in line with one’s values and the future one wants, and avoid contributing to a development that one does not want.

Finally, alternative financial institutions create opportunities to initiate experiments and projects that would otherwise not have begun, thus anchoring alternative development paths in real-world examples, such as wind power, organic farming, and local small scale projects.

Read the dissertation here

Bjørnholt, Margunn (1995). Pengene mot strømmen: alternative finansieringsorganisasjoner (PDF) [Money against the stream: alternative financial institutions]. (PhD) dissertation (magistergradsavhandling) in economic sociology, Department of Sociology, University of Oslo. ISBN 82-570-0438-3.